sā u̯ el-, sāu̯ ol-, suu̯el-, su̯el-, sūl- , (*sweĝhu̯el-)

sā u̯ el-, sāu̯ ol-, suu̯el-, su̯el-, sūl- , (*sweĝhu̯el-)
    sā́ u̯ el-, sāu̯ ol-, suu̯él-, su̯el-, sūl- , (*sweĝhu̯el-)
    English meaning: sun
    Deutsche Übersetzung: ‘sonne”
    Note: Root sǘ u̯ el-, süu̯ ol-, suu̯él-, su̯el-, sūl- , (*seĝhu̯el-): ‘sun” derived from a compound of Root se- : “reflexive pronoun” + Root ĝhel-1 (and ghel-?), also as i-, u- or n-stem; ĝhelǝ- : ĝhlē-, ĝhlō- : ĝhlǝ- (*ĝhwel-): “to shine; green, gold, blue, *sun”
    Note: next to which su̯en-, sun-, thus of old l/n-stem; su̯el- “ smolder, burn “ is probably identical with it
    Material:
    Note: Oldest cognate Illyr.-Alb. (*ĝhel-) diell ‘sun” [Alb.-Illyr. ĝh- > d- shift]; Phonetic evidence: see Root gʷel-1 : “to stick; pain, death”: Gk. δέλλιθες “Wespen”, Hes.; βελόνη f. ‘spitze, Nadel”, ὀξυβελής ὀιστός Hom.; aber βέλος n. “Geschoß” wohl eher zu βάλλω, s. ũber den sekundären Zusammenschluß mit letzterer Sippe unter 2. gʷel- “herabträufeln; werfen”; uber ὀβελός, ὀβολός, ark. Dor. ὀδελός ‘spitze, Bratspieß, Mũnze” s. Schwyzer Gk. I 295; Gk. Kret. (*seĝhu̯el-) ἀβέλιος Hes. (i.e. ἀ̄Fελιος), Gk. Hom. (*heuu̯eli-os) ἠέλιος, Att. (zero grade) ἥλιος, Dor. (*heu̯eli-os) ἀέλιος, ἅ̄λιος [common Gk. -kw- > -p-, -gw- > -b- phonetic mutation] : O.Ind. ved. (*suu̯el) súvar, Gujarati surdj ‘sun” : (*seĝhu̯el-) Goth. sugil, O.E. sygel, sigel from Proto-Gmc. *sugila-, O.S. swigli “bright, radiating” from *swegila-, O.E. sweg(e)l n. ‘sky, heaven, sun”, swegle “bright, radiating”. 1. O.Ind. ved. (*suu̯el) súvar n. = (zero grade) Av. hvarǝ ‘sun, light, sky”, gen. (*suu̯ela) súraḥ = jAv. (*suu̯elio) hūrō, O.Ind. sū́ rya- (*sūlii̯ o-) m. (compare Gk. ἥλιος), sūra- m. ‘sun”; therefrom O.Ind. sūrta- “light, bright”, O.Ind. svárṇara- m. “ bright space, ether “, Av. x ̌arǝnah-, ар. -farnah- “ shining fame, magnificence “; Other forms in Indo-Aryan: (*suu̯el-a)*suu̯ar- [in names] ‘sun(god)” (Near-Eastern IA); Av.: OAv. huuarǝ̄ [n] (< *húu̯ar) ‘sun” (gen.sg. xvǝ̄ṇg < *huu̯ánh); LAv. huuarǝ (gen.sg. hū < *huu̯ánh, next to hūrō = Ved. sū́ ras), Sogd. (MO.N.) xwr ‘sun”, Middle Persian xwr ‘sun”, New Persian xwr ‘sun”, O.S.S. xūr / xor ‘sun” Maybe Afghan lmar, Waziri lmer, myer ‘sun” from O.Ind. svárṇara- m. “ bright space, ether “; Armenian arew, aregak, arev, Singhalese ira ‘sun”. Maybe Luvian: (<h̲u-wa-ya-al-li ) <h̲uwayalla/i- “ Epithet of the Sun-god” Maybe zero grade Alb. diell (*eĝhu̯el-, ĝhu̯el-)”the sun” common Alb. gh- > d- phonetic mutatIon. Gk. Hom. ἠέλιος, Att. ἥλιος, Dor. ἀέλιος, ἅ̄λιος, Cret. ἀβέλιος Hes. (i.e. ἀ̄Fελιος) ‘sun”, further formations of n. *süu̯ el to m. -i̯o-stem (compare O.Ind. sū́ rya-); Lat. sōl, -is m. ‘sun” (from neutr. *süu̯ el about *süu̯ ol, *süol); Welsh haul, O.Corn. heuul, M.Corn. heul, houl, Bret. heol ‘sun” (*süu̯ el-); in addition O.Ir. sūil f. “eye” from *sūli-, ablaut equally with O.Ind. sū́ raḥ , and Alb. hũll, ũll “ star “ (*sūlo- or *sūli-);
    Note: [conservative definitive forms versus indefinite forms (Alb. phonetic trait)], hence Alb. geg sũni , Tosc syri (*sũlni) “eye” : Old Irish (*süu̯ el-) sūil “ eye “ Also Estonian silm “eye” : Finnish silmä “eye” Other Alb. cognates (Gjakova dial.) (*huu̯eln) uvill, [Buzuku] (*ũviln) yill “ star “, [Sirmie] pl. ulini ‘stars”. Yet the shift of initial (*su̯e- > de-) is a common Alb. phonetic mutatIon. See Root su̯ergh-: to take care of; to be Illyr. Hence Alb. dergjem (*su̯erghi̯ō) “be bedridden, be sick”. Therefore Alb. diell “ sun “ probably derived from a root *su̯el. Goth. sauil n. (*sōwila-), O.Ice. sōl f. (*sōwulü) ‘sun”, O.Ice. and-sø̄ lis, aschw. and-sylis “the sun zugewendet”; doubtful the rune names Goth. sugil, O.E. sygel, sigel from Proto- Gmc. *sugila-, ablaut. with O.S. swigli “bright, radiating” from *swegila-, O.E. sweg(e)l n. ‘sky, heaven, sun”, swegle “bright, radiating” from *swagila-; Balt *süu̯ eli̯ ü f. in Lith. Ltv. sáulė “ sun “; Slav. *sulnika- n. in O.C.S. slьnъce “ sun “ (das -ni- from *ogni “fire”); 2. In -en-stem: Av. x ̌ǝng “the sun” (IE *su̯en-s), gen. from hvarǝ; Goth. sunnō (dat. sunnin, neutr. after sauil), O.E. sunna, O.H.G. sunno, sunna ‘sun”, wherefore as ‘sonnseitig = sũdlich” O.Ice. suðr ‘south”, adv. “ southward “, O.E. sūðerra , O.S. sūthar-liudi (‘southern people”), O.H.G. sundar ‘south”, adv. “ southward “, M.H.G. sund ‘south” etc. (Ger. Sũd from dem Nd.). Gujarati surdj ‘sun” Perhaps Toch. A swüñ ce, swüñ co, Toch. B swüñ cai- “ray [of light], (sun) beam” reflect Proto-Toch. *swüñ cai- which is possibly (with Hilmarsson, 1986a:263-95, in nuce Pisani, 1942-43a:29) related to Proto-Germanic *sunϑa- *’sunny” > ‘south” and *sunnō ‘sun” (cf. P:881-2; MA:556). The two Germanic words would reflect PIE *suhaṇto- (a derivative of *sehawel-/suhan- ‘sun”) and, with "particularizing" -n-, *suhaṇtōn-/ suhaṇten-/suhaṇtn-. The attested paradigm of Germanic *sunnō reflects a conflation of the o-grade and the zerograde stems (*suhaṇtn- > *sunϑn- > *sunn-). For Hilmarsson, the Tocharian forms represent a generalization of *suhaṇten-, further derived by the addition of -ai-.
    Note: The root *suhaṇten- is an attribute noun created in the same way as adj. and ordinal numbers: Anatolian languages show a pattern similar to Alb. So Lycian aitãta (*ok̂tō(u)ta) “eight” : Alb. teta “eight”; Lycian ñuñtãta “nine” : Alb. nanda “nine”. Therefore Alb. shtata ‘seven” derived from a truncated *sa(p)tata ‘seven” later O.Ind. saptáthaḥ, Av. haptaϑa-, O.S. sivotho, O.E. seofoða , Lith. septiñtas; also O.Ind. saptatí-, Av. haptüiti- 70; in Alb. -ta, -të are attribute endings that were solidified in Anatolian and Indic cognates. The attribute ta (used in the genitive and adjectives) is unique to Alb. language alone. Therefore Alb. teta “eight” is a zero grade of Lycian aitãta (*ok̂tō(u)ta) “eight”. It was initially an ordinal number used as an attribute [compare Lat. octuügintü “80”]. That means Slav. *sulnika- n. in O.C.S. slьnъce “ sun “ (das -ni- from *ogni “fire”) is phonetically equal to Toch. A swüñ ce, swüñ co, Toch. B swüñ cai- “ray [of light], (sun) beam”, hence Slav. forms were created according to attribute nouns ans are late creations. Maybe Gk. “Απόλλων, -ωνος; various dialectic forms: “Απέλλων (Dor.), “Απείλων (Cypr.), Α῎πλουν (Thess.). - Seit J. Schmidt KZ 32, 327ff. all are linked to Cret. ἀβέλιος Hes. (i.e. ἀ̄Fελιος) “ sun “. It seems that the sun god “Απόλλων derived from Cret. ἀβέλιος Hes. (i.e. ἀ̄Fελιος) “ sun “. The common phonetic mutation in Gk. λι > λλ has taken place. Both “Απέλλων (Dor.), “Απείλων (Cypr.), Α῎πλουν (Thess.) and Cret. ἀβέλιος Hes. (i.e. ἀ̄Fελιος) “ sun “ derived from the same root *sühu̯ el ‘sun” where the common Gk. phonetic mutation hw > p, gw > b has taken place.
    Note: Khaskura gham (also Indic borrowing surj) “ sun “, Gypsy Gk kham “ sun “ : Gk. ἀFέλιος reflect Gk. -b- > -mb- > -m- phonetic mutatIon. Maybe Etruscan avil “ year “ a borrowing from Gk. ἀFέλιος.
    References: WP. II 446 f., WH. II 553 f., Trautmann 251, A. Scherer Gestirnnamen 45 ff.

Proto-Indo-European etymological dictionary. 2015.

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